Red Meat and Cancer References (Original)

Aberle, E. D., Forrest, J. C., Gerrard, D. E., and Mills, E. W. (2001). Principles of Meat Science. 4th edition, Kendall Hunt, Dubuque, IA, USA.
http://www.amazon.com/Principles-Meat-Science-ABERLE-ELTON/dp/0757599958

Alaejos, M. S., Afonso, A. M. (2011). Factors that affect the content of heterocyclic aromatic amines in foods. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety. 10(2):52-108.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1541-4337.2010.00141.x/full

Alexander DD. 2013. No association between meat intake and mortality in Asian countries. Am J Clin Nutr 98:865-866.
http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/98/4/865.full

Alexander DD, Cushing CA. 2011. Red meat and colorectal cancer: a critical summary of prospective epidemiologic studies. Obes Rev 12:e472-e493.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20663065

Alexander DD, Cushing CA. Quantitative assessment of red meat or processed meat consumption and kidney cancer. Cancer Detect Prev. 2009;32(5-6):340-351.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19303221

Alexander DD, Cushing CA, Lowe KA, Sceurman B, Roberts MA. Meta-analysis of animal fat or animal protein intake and colorectal cancer. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009b; 89(5):1402-1409.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19261724

Alexander DD, Miller AJ, Cushing CA, Lowe KA. 2010. Processed meat and colorectal cancer: a quantitative review of prospective epidemiologic studies. Eur J Cancer Prev 19:328-341.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20495462

Alexander DD, Mink PJ, Cushing CA, Sceurman B. A review and meta-analysis of prospective studies of red and processed meat intake and prostate cancer. Nutr J. 2010b;9(50):1475-2891.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21044319

Alexander DD, Morimoto LM, Mink PJ, Cushing CA. A review and meta-analysis of red and processed meat consumption and breast cancer. Nutr Res Rev. 2010c;23(2):349-365.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21110906

Alexander DD, Morimoto LM, Mink PJ, Lowe KA. Summary and meta-analysis of prospective studies of animal fat intake and breast cancer. Nutr Res Rev. 2010d;23(1):169-179.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20181297

Alexander DD, Weed DL, Cushing CA, Lowe KA. Meta-analysis of prospective studies of red meat consumption and colorectal cancer. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2011b; 20(4):293-307.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21540747

Alexander D, Weed D, Miller P, Mohamed MA. Red meat and colorectal cancer: a quantitative update on the state of the epidemiologic science. J Am Coll Nutr. 2015. May 5:1-23.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25941850

Alomiraha, H., Al-Zenkia, S., Al-Hootia, S., Zaghloula, S., Sawayaa, W., Ahmedb, N., Kannan, K. (2011). Concentrations and dietary exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from grilled and smoked foods. Food Control. 22:2028-2035.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0956713511002258

Al-Rashdan, A., Helaleh, M. I. H., Nisar, A., Ibtisam, A., Al-Ballam, Z. (2010). Determination of the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in toasted bread using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. International Journal of Analytical Chemistry. doi: 10.1155/2010/821216.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2938452/

Andersen, V., Christensen, J., Overvad, K., Tjonneland, A., and Vogel, U. (2011). Heme oxygenase-1 polymorphism is not associated with risk of colorectal cancer: A Danish prospective study. European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 23(3), 282-285.
http://journals.lww.com/eurojgh/Abstract/2011/03000/Heme_oxygenase_1_polymorphism_is_not_associated.14.aspx

Andersen, V., Holst, R., and Vogel, U. (2013). Systematic review: diet-gene interactions and the risk of colorectal cancer. Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 37, 383-391.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3565452/

Andersen, V., Kopp, T.V., Tjonneland, A. and Vogel, U., (2015). No Association between HMOX1 and Risk of Colorectal Cancer and No Interaction with Diet and Lifestyle Factors in a Perspective Danish Case-Cohort Study. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 16, 1375-1384.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4307307/

Andersen, V. and Vogel, U. (2015). Interactions between meat intake and genetic variation in relation to colorectal cancer. Genes and Nutrition, 10, 448-461.
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12263-014-0448-9

Barbir, A., Linseisen, J., Hermann, S., Kaaks, R., Teucher, B., Eichholzer, M., and Rohrmann, S. (2012). Effects of phenotypes in heterocyclic aromatic amine (HCA) metabolism–related genes on the association of HCA intake with the risk of colorectal adenomas. Cancer Causes Control. 23:1429-1442.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22740027

Bastide, N. M., Chenni, F., Audebert, M., Santarelli, R. L., Tache, S., Naud, N., Baradat, M., Jouanin, I., Surya, R., Hobbs, D. A., Kuhnle, G. G., Raymond-Letron, I., Gueraud, F., Corpet, D. E., and Pierre, F. H. F. (2015). A central role for heme iron in colon carcinogenesis associated with red meat intake. Cancer Research, 75(5), 870-879.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25592152

Bernstein, A. M., Song, M., Zhang, X., Pan, A., Wang, M., Fuchs, C. S., Ngoan, L., Chan, A. T., Willett, W. C., Ogino, S., and Giovannucci, E. L. (2015). Processed and unprocessed red meat and risk of colorectal cancer: analysis by tumor location and modification by time. PLoS ONE. 10(8): e0135959. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0135959.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26305323

Bidlack, W. R., Birt, D., Borzelleca, J., Clemens, R., Coutrelis, N., Coughlin, J. R., and Trautman, T. (2009). Expert report: making decisions about the risks of chemicals in foods with limited scientific information. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 8(3), 269-303.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1541-4337.2009.00081.x/pdf

Buckland, G., Agudo, A., Travier, N., et al. (2011). Adherence to the Mediterranean diet reduces mortality in the Spanish cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Spain). Br J Nutr. 106:1581-1591.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21736834

Budhathoki, S., Iwasaki, M., Yamaji, T., Sasazuki, S., Takachi, R., Sakamoto, H., Yoshida, T., and Tsugane, S. (2015). Dietary heterocyclic amine intake, NAT2 genetic polymorphism, and colorectal adenoma risk: the colorectal adenoma study in Tokyo. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. 24(3):613-620.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25604583

Burnett-Hartman, A. N., Newcomb, P. A., Mandelson, M. T., Adams, S. V., Wernli, K. J., Shadman, M., Wurscher, M. A., and Makar, K. W. (2011). Colorectal polyp type and the association with charred meat consumption, smoking, and microsomal epoxide hydrolase polymorphisms. Nutr Cancer 63, 583-92.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21598178

Butler, L. M., Duguay, Y., Millikan, R. C., Sinha, R., Gagne, J. F., Sandler, R. S., and Guillemette, C. (2005). Joint effects between UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A7 genotype and dietary carcinogen exposure on risk of colon cancer. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. 14(7):1626-1632.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16030093

Butler, L. M., Millikan, R. C., Sinha, R., Keku, T. O., Winkel, S., Harlan, B., Eaton, A., Gammon, M. D., and Sandler, R. S. (2008). Modification by N-acetyltransferase 1 genotype on the association between dietary heterocyclic amines and colon cancer in a multiethnic study. Mutation Research. 638(1-2):162-174.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2234436/

Casey, S. C., Vaccari, M., Al-Mulla, F., Al-Temaimi, R., Amedei, A., Barcellos-Hoff, M. H., Brown, D. G., Chapellier, M., Christopher, J., Curran, C., Forte, S., Hamid, R. A., Heneberg, P., Koch, D. C., Krishnakumar, P. K., Laconi, E., Maguer-Satta, V., Marongiu, F., Memeo, L., Mondello, C., Raju, J., Roman, J., Roy, R., Ryan, E. P., Ryeom, S., Salem, H. K., Scovassi, A. I., Singh, N., Soucek, L., Vermeulen, L., Whitfield, J. R., Woodrick, J., Colacci, A., Bisson, W. H., and Felsher, D. W. (2015). The effect of environmental chemicals on the tumor microenvironment. Carcinogenesis 36 Suppl 1, S160-83.
http://carcin.oxfordjournals.org/content/36/Suppl_1/S160.abstract

Chen, Y. C. and Chen, B. H. (2003). Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fumes from fried chicken legs. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 51:4162?4167.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12822962

Chen, J. and Huang, X. F. (2009). The signal pathways in azoxymethane-induced colon cancer and preventive implications. Cancer Biology and Therapy, 8(14), 1313-1317.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19502780
Chen, Y. H., Xia, E. Q., Xu, X. R., Li, S., Ling, W. H., Wu, S., Deng, G. F., Zou, Z. F., Zhou, J., Li, H. B. (2012). Evaluation of benzo[a]pyrene in food from China by high-performance liquid chromatography fluorescence detection. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 9:4159-4169.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23202838

Del Gobbo, L.C, Khatibzadeh, S., Imamura, F. et al. (2015). Assessing global dietary habits: a comparison of national estimates from the FAO and the Global Dietary Database. Am J Clin Nutr. 101:1038-1046.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25788002

Delfino, R. J., Sinha, R., Smith, C., West, J., White, E., Lin, H. J., Liao, S. Y., Gim, J. S. Y., Ma, H. L., Butler, J., and Anton-Culver, H. (2000). Breast cancer, heterocyclic aromatic amines from meat and N-acteyltransferase 2 genotype. Carcinogenesis. 21(4):607-615.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10753193

Demeyer, D., Mertens, B., De Smet, S., Ulens, M. (2015). Mechanisms linking colorectal cancer to the consumption of (processed) red meat: a review. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 15:0. Epub ahead of print.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25975275

Deziel, N. C., Buckley, T. J., Sinha, R., Abudaker, S., Platz, E. A., and Strickland, P. T. (2012). Comparability and repeatability of methods for estimating the dietary intake of the heterocyclic amine contaminant 2-amino-1methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5b]pyridine (PhIP). Food Additives and Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment. 29(8):1202-1211.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22571725

Douron, M. (2010). U-shaped dose response curves: implications for risk characterization of essential elements and other chemicals. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A 73, 181-186.
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/15287390903340450

Duedahl-Olesen, L., Christensen, J. H., Højgard, A., Granby, K., Timm-Heinrichd, M. (2010). Influence of smoking parameters on the concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Danish smoked fish. Food Additives and Contaminants. 27(9):1294-1305.
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/19440049.2010.487074

EFSA Opinion. (2004). Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies on a request from the Commission related to Tolerable Upper Intake Level of Iron. The EFSA Journal, 125, 1-34.
http://www.efsa.europa.eu/fr/efsajournal/pub/125

EFSA Opinion. (2015). Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for iron. The EFSA Journal, In press.
http://www.efsa.europa.eu/sites/default/files/consultation/150526.pdf

Eisenbrand, G., Pool-Zobel, B., Baker, V., Balls, M., Blaauboer, B. J., Boobis, A., Carere, A., Kevekordes, S., Lhuguenot, J. C., Pieters, R., and Kleiner, J. (2002). Methods of in vitro toxicology. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 40, 193-236.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11893398

European Union (EU), Commission Regulation No 835/2011. (2011). Amending regulation (EC) No 1881/2006 as regards maximum levels for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in foodstuffs. Official Journal of the European Union. L 215/4.
http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX:32011R0835

European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) Opinion. (2007). Findings of the EFSA data collection on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in food. The EFSA Journal.
http://www.efsa.europa.eu/sites/default/files/scientific_output/files/main_documents/33r.pdf

Farhadian, A., Jinap, S., Abas, F., Sakar, Z. I. (2010). Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in grilled meat. Food Control. 21:606-610.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0956713509002576

Fu, Z., Shrubsole, M. J., Li, G., Smalley, W. E., Hein, D. W., Chen, Z., Shyr, Y., Cai, Q., Ness, R. M., and Zheng, W. (2012). Using gene-environment interaction analyses to clarify the role of well-done meat and heterocyclic amine exposure in the etiology of colorectal polyps. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 96:1119-1128.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23015320

Gilsing, A. M. J., Berndt, S. I., Ruder, E. H., Graubard, B. I., Ferrucci, L. M., Burdett, L., Weissfeld, J. L., Cross, A. J., and Sinha, R. (2012). Meat-related mutagen exposure, xenobiotic metabolizing gene polymorphisms and the risk of advanced colorectal adenoma and cancer. Carcinogenesis. 33(7):1332-1339.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22552404

Gilsing, A. M. J., Fransen, F., de Kok, T. M., Goldbohm, A. R., Schouten, L. J., de Bruine, A. P., van Engeland, M., van den Brandt, P. A., de Goeij, A. F. P. M., and Weijenberg, M. P. (2013). Dietary heme iron and the risk of colorectal cancer with specific mutations in KRAS and APC. Carcinogenesis, 34(12), 2757-2766.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23983135

Girard, H., Butler, L. M., Villeneuve, L., Millikan, R. C., Sinha, R., Sandler, R. S., and Guillemette, C. (2008). UGT1A1 and UGT1A9 functional variants, meat intake, and colon cancer, among Caucasians and African-Americans. Mutat Res 644, 56-63.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18675828

Gueraud, F., Tache, S. Steghens, J. P., Milkovic, L., Borovic-Sunjic, S., Zarkovic, N., Gaultier, E., Naud, N., Helies-Toussaint, C., Pierre, F., and Priymenko, N. (2015). Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and heme iron induce oxidative stress biomarkers and a cancer promoting environment in the colon of rats. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 83, 192-200.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25744414

Gulec, S., Anderson, G. J., and Collins, J. F. (2014). Mechanistic and regulatory aspects of intestinal iron absorption. American Journal of Physiology Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, 307, G397–G409.
http://ajpgi.physiology.org/content/307/4/G397

Guttenplan, J. B., Chen, M., Kosinska, W., Thompson, S., Zhao, Z., and Cohen, L. A. (2001). Effects of a lycopene-rich diet on spontaneous and benzo[a]pyrene-induced mutagenesis in prostate, colon and lungs of the lacZ mouse. Cancer Lett 164, 1-6.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11166909

Heddle, J. A., Knize, M. G., Dawood, D., and Zhang, X. B. (2001). A test of the mutagenicity of cooked meats in vivo. Mutagenesis. 16(2):103–107.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11230550

Higgs, J. D. (2000). The changing nature of red meat: 20 years of improving nutritional quality. Trends in Food Science and Technology. 11:85-95.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0924224400000558

Ho, V., Peacock, S., Massey, T. E., Ashbury, J. E., Vanner, S. J., and King, W. D. (2014). Meat-derived carcinogens, genetic susceptibility and colorectal adenoma risk. Genes and Nutrition. 9(6):430.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25231222

Ho, V., Peacock, S., Massey, T. E., Godschalk, R. W. L., vanSchooten, F. J., Chen, J., and King, W. D. (2015). Gene-diet interactions in exposure to heterocyclic aromatic amines and bulky DNA adduct levels in blood leukocytes. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. 56:609-620.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/em.21950/abstract

Hunt, J. R. (2005). Dietary and physiological factors that affect the absorption and bioavailability of iron. International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research, 75(6), 375-384.
http://econtent.hogrefe.com/doi/abs/10.1024/0300-9831.75.6.375

IARC. (2010). Household use of solid fuels and high-temperature frying. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Volume 95. Lyon, France.
http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/vol95/mono95.pdf

IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. (2010). Some Non-heterocyclic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Some Related Exposures. IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans/World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Volume 92.
http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/vol92/mono92.pdf

IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. (2012). Biological agents. Volume 100 B. A review of human carcinogens. IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans/World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 100 (Pt B), 1.
http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/vol100B/mono100B.pdf

IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. (2014). Report of the Advisory Group to Recommend Priorities for IARC Monographs during 2015–2019.
http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Publications/internrep/14-002.pdf

Imamura, F., Micha, R., Khatibzadeh, S. et al. (2015). Dietary quality among men and women in 187 countries in 1990 and 2010: a systematic assessment. Lancet Glob Health. 3:e132-42.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25701991

Institute of Medicine (IOM). Food and Nutrition Board. (2001). Dietary reference intakes for vitamin A, vitamin K, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc: a report of the panel on micronutrients. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
http://www.nap.edu/read/10026/chapter/1

Ishibe, N., Sinha, R., Hein, D. W., Kulldorff, M., Strickland, P., Fretland, A. J., Chow, W. H., Kadlubare, F. F., Lang, N. P., and Rothman, N. (2002). Genetic polymorphisms in heterocyclic amine metabolism and risk of colorectal adenomas. Pharmacogenetics. 12:145-150.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11875368

Jacobson, M.F., Havas, S., McCarter, R. (2013). Changes in sodium levels in processed and restaurant foods, 2005-2011. JAMA Internal Medicine. 173:1285-1291.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23699927

Jakszyn, P., Agudo, A., Ibanez, R., et al. (2004). Development of a food database of nitrosamines, heterocyclic amines, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. J Nutr. 134:2011-2014.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15284391

Jinap, S., Mohd-Mokhtar, M. S., Farhadian, A., Hasnol, N. D. S., Jaafar, S. N., and Hajeb, P. (2013). Effects of varying degrees of doneness on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines in chicken and beef satay. Meat Science. 94:202-207.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23501251

Jørgensen, R. B., Strandberg, B., Sjaastad, A. K., Johansen, A., Svendsen, K. (2013). Simulated restaurant cook exposure to emissions of PAHs, mutagenic aldehydes, and particles from frying bacon. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene. 10:122–131.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23343415

Joseph, P., Suman, S. P., Li, S., Beach, C. M., and Claus, J. R. (2010). Mass spectrometric characterization and thermostability of turkey myoglobin. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 43, 273–278.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S002364380900214X

Joseph, P., Suman, S. P., Rentfrow, G., Li, S., and Beach, C. M. (2012). Proteomics of muscle-specific beef color stability. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 60, 3196?3203.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22369190?dopt=Abstract

Joshi, A. D., Corral, R., Catsburg, C., Lewinger, J. P., Koo, J., John, E. M., Ingles, S. A., and Stern, M. C. (2012). Red meat and poultry, cooking practices, genetic susceptibility and risk of prostate cancer: results from a multiethnic case–control study. Carcinogenesis. 33(11):2108-2118.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22822096

Kazerouni, N., Sinha, R., Hsu, C. H., Greenberg, A., Rothman, N. (2001). Analysis of 200 food items for benzo[a]pyrene and estimation of its intake in an epidemiologic study. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 39:423-436.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11313108

Kitts, D. D., Chen, X. M., Broda, P. (2012). Polyaromatic hydrocarbons of smoked cured muscle foods prepared by Canadian Tl'azt'en and Llheidli T'enneh first nation communities. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. 75:1249–1252.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23030651

Koutros, S., Berndt, S. I., Sinha, R., Ma, X., Chatterjee, N., Alavanja, M. C. R., Zheng, T., Huang, W. Y., Hayes, R. B., Cross, A. J. (2009). Xenobiotic metabolizing gene variants, dietary heterocyclic amine intake, and risk of prostate cancer. Cancer Research. 69(5):1877-1884.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19223546

Kushman, M. E., Kraft, A. D., Guyton, K. Z., Chiu, W. A., Makris, S. L., and Rusyn, I. (2013). A systematic approach for identifying and presenting mechanistic evidence in human health assessments. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 67, 266-277.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0273230013001220

Lasne, C., Gentil, A., and Chouroulinkov, I. (1977). Two-stage carcinogenesis with rat embryo cells in tissue culture. Br J Cancer 35, 722-9.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/405981

Lawrie, R. A., and D. A. Ledward. (2006). Lawrie’s Meat Science. 7th edition, Woodhead Publishing Limited, Abington Hall, Abington, Cambridge CB1 6AH, England.
http://www.geocities.ws/saqibuos/files/Lawries%20Meat%20Science.pdf

Le Marchand, L., Hankin, J. H., Pierce, L. M., Sinha, R., Nerurkar, P. V., Franke, A. A., Wilkens, L. R., Kolonel, L. N., Donlon, T., Seifried, A., Custer, L. J., Jones, A. L., and Chang, W. (2002). Well-done red meat, metabolic phenotypes and colorectal cancer in Hawaii. Mutation Research. 506-507:205-214
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12351160

Lee, H. J., Wu, K., Cox, D. G., Hunter, D., Hankinson, S. E., Willett, W. C., Sinha, R., and Cho, E. (2013). Polymorphisms in xenobiotic metabolizing genes, intakes of heterocyclic amines and red meat, and postmenopausal breast cancer. Nutrition and Cancer. 65(8):1122-1131.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24099317

Lightfoot, T. J., Coxhead, J. M., Cupid, B. C., Nicholson, S., and Garner, R. C. (2000). Analysis of DNA adducts by accelerator mass spectrometry in human breast tissue after administration of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine and benzo[a]pyrene. Mutation Research. 472:119-127.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1383571800001340

Lorenzo, J. M., Purrinos, L., Fontan, M. C. G., Franco, D. (2010). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in two Spanish traditional smoked sausage varieties: “Androlla and Botillo”. Meat Science. 86:660-664.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20667428

Lowe, S. W., Cepero, E., and Evan, G. (2004). Intrinsic tumour suppression. Nature 432, 307-15.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15549092

Martin, O. C. B., Naud, N., Tache, S., Raymond-Letron, I., Corpet, D. E., and Pierre, F. H. (2015). Antibiotic suppression of intestinal microbiota reduces heme-induced lipoperoxidation associated with colon carcinogenesis in rats. Nutrition and Cancer, 67(1), 119-125.
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01635581.2015.976317

McKenna, D. R., Mies, P. D., Baird, B. E., Pfeiffer, K. D., Ellebracht, J. W., Savell, J. W. (2005). Biochemical and physical factors affecting discoloration characteristics of 19 bovine muscles. Meat Science, 70, 665-682.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22063894

McNeill, S.H. (2014). Inclusion of red meat in healthful dietary patterns. Meat Sci. 98:452-460.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S030917401400196X

McNeill, S. H., Harris, K. B., Field, T. G., Van Elswyk, M. E. (2012). The evolution of lean beef: identifying lean beef in today’s U.S. marketplace. Meat Science. 90:1-8.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21737208

McNeill, S.H. and Van Elswyk, M.E. (2015). Meat: Role in the Diet. Encyclopedia of Food and Health, in press.
http://store.elsevier.com/Encyclopedia-of-Food-and-Health/isbn-9780123849472/

Mignone, L I., Giovannucci, E., Newcomb, P. A., Titus-Ernstoff, L., Carbone, P. P., Hampton, J. M., Oray, E. J., Willett, W. C., and Egan, K. M. (2009). Meat consumption, heterocyclic amines, NAT2, and the risk of breast cancer. Nutrition and Cancer. 61(1):36-46.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19116874

Miller, M. L., Vasunia, K., Talaska, G., Andringa, A., de Boer, J., and Dixon, K. (2000). The tumor promoter TPA enhances benzo[a]pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene diolepoxide mutagenesis in Big Blue mouse skin. Environ Mol Mutagen 35, 319-27.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10861950

Mohammadi, A., Ghasemzadeh-Mohammadi, V., Haratian, P., Khaksar, R., Chaichi, M. (2013). Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in smoked fish samples by a new microextraction technique and method optimisation using response surface methodology. Food Chemistry. 141:2459-2465.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23870981

Mukherjee, J. J., and Kumar, S. (2013). DNA synthesis inhibition in response to benzo[a]pyrene dihydrodiol epoxide is associated with attenuation of p(34)cdc2: Role of p53. Mutat Res 755, 61-7.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23692869

Mukherjee, J. J., Kumar, S., Gocinski, R., and Williams, J. (2011). Phenolic fraction of tobacco smoke inhibits BPDE-induced apoptosis response and potentiates cell transformation: role of attenuation of p53 response. Chem Res Toxicol 24, 698-705.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21480602

Munro, I. C. (2006). Setting tolerable upper intake levels for nutrients. Journal of Nutrition, 136, 490S-492S.
http://jn.nutrition.org/content/136/2/490S.abstract

Myhr, B. C. (1991). Validation studies with Muta Mouse: a transgenic mouse model for detecting mutations in vivo. Environ Mol Mutagen 18, 308-15.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1836178

NCI, 2015. National Cancer Institute, Division of Cancer Epidemiology & Genetics, CHARRED database, Read Me.
http://dceg.cancer.gov/tools/design/charred/readme

Nebert, D. W., Shi, Z., Galvez-Peralta, M., Uno, S., and Dragin, N. (2013). Oral benzo[a]pyrene: understanding pharmacokinetics, detoxication, and consequences--Cyp1 knockout mouse lines as a paradigm. Mol Pharmacol 84, 304-13.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23761301

Nothlings, U., Yamamoto, J. F., Wilkens, L. R., Murphy, S. P., Par, S. Y., Henderson, B. E., Kolonel, L. N., and Le Marchand, L. (2009). Meat and heterocyclic amine intake, smoking, NAT1 and NAT2 polymorphisms and colorectal cancer risk in the multiethnic cohort study. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. 18(7):2098-2106.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19549810

Nowell, S., Coles, B., Sinha, R., MacLeod, S., Ratnasinghe, D. L., Stotts, C., Kadlubar, F. F., Ambrosone, C. B., and Lang, N. P. (2002). Analysis of total meat intake and exposure to individual heterocyclic amines in a case-control study of colorectal cancer: contribution of metabolic variation to risk. Mutation Research. 506-507:175-185.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12351157

Office of Health Assessment and Translation (OHAT). (2015). Handbook for conducting a literature-based health assessment using OHAT approach for systematic review and evidence integration. Division of the National Toxicology Program National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences.
http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/ntp/ohat/pubs/handbookjan2015_508.pdf

Olatunji, O. S., Fatoki, O. S., Opeolu, B. O., Ximba, B. J. (2015). Benzo[a]pyrene and benzo[k]fluoranthene in some processed fish and fish products. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 12:940-951.
http://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/12/1/940

Olatunji, O. S., Fatoki, O. S., Opeolu, B. O., Ximba, B. J. (2014). Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs] in processed meat products using gas chromatography – flame ionization detector. Food Chemistry. 156:296-300.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24629971

Parasramka, M. A., Dashwood, W. M., Wang, R., Abdelli, A., Bailey, G. S., Williams, D. E., Ho, E., and Dashwood, R. H. (2012). MicroRNA profiling of carcinogen-induced rat colon tumors and the influence of dietary spinach. Molecular Nutrition and Food Research. 56(8):1259-1269.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3762592/

Pierre, F., Freeman, A., Tache, S., Van der Meer, R., and Corpet, D. E. (2004). Beef meat and blood sausage promote the formation of azoxymethane-induced mucin-depleted foci and aberrant crypt foci in rat colons. Journal of Nutrition, 134(10), 2711-2716.
http://jn.nutrition.org/content/134/10/2711.full

Pierre, F., Peiro, G., Tache, S., Cross, A. J., Bingham, S. A., Gasc, N., Gottardi, G., Corpet, D. E., and Gueraud, F. (2006). New marker of colon cancer risk associated with heme intake: 1, 4-dihydroxynonane mercapturic acid. Cancer Eidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, 15(11), 2274-2279.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17119057

Pierre, F., Santarelli, R., Tache, S., Gueraud, F., and Corpet, D. E. (2008). Beef meat promotion of dimethylhydrazine-induced colorectal carcinogenesis biomarkers is suppressed by dietary calcium. British Journal of Nutrition, 99(5), 1000-1006.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17953789

Pierre, F., Tache, S., Petit, C. R., Van der Meer, R., and Corpet, D. E. (2003). Meat and cancer: haemoglobin and haemin in a low-calcium diet promote colorectal carcinogenesis at the aberrant crypt stage in rats. Carcinogenesis, 24(10), 1683-1690.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2754080/

Price, B. D., and Calderwood, S. K. (1993). Increased sequence-specific p53-DNA binding activity after DNA damage is attenuated by phorbol esters. Oncogene 8, 3055-62.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8414506

Puangsombat, K., Gadgil, P., Houser, T. A., Hunt, M. C., and Smith, J. S. (2011). Heterocyclic amine content in commercial ready to eat meat products. Meat Science. 88(2):227-233.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21242037

Puangsombat, K., Gadgil, P., Houser, T. A., Hunt, M. C., and Smith, J. S. (2012). Occurrence of heterocyclic amines in cooked meat products. Meat Science. 90:739-746.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22129588

Purewal, M., Velasco, M., Fretland, A. J., Hein, D. W., and Wargovich, M. J. (2000). 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine induces a higher number of aberrant crypt foci in Fischer 344 (rapid) than in Wistar Kyoto (slow) acetylator inbred rats. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. 9:529-532.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10815700

Rabstein, S., Bruning, T., Harth, V., Fischer, H. P., Haas, S., Weiss, T., Spickenheuer, A., Pierl, C., Justenhoven, C., Illig, T., Vollmert, C., Baisch, C., Ko, Y. D., Hamann, U., Brauch, H., and Pesch, B. (2010). N-acetyltransferase 2, exposure to aromatic and heterocyclic amines, and receptor-defined breast cancer. European Journal of Cancer Prevention. 19:100-109.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19996973

Reedy, J., Krebs-Smit, S.M., Miller, P.E., et al. (2014). Higher dietary quality is associated with decreased risk of all-cause, cardiovascular disease, and cancer mortality among older adults. J Nutr. 144:881-889.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24572039

Reeves, P. G. (1997). Components of the AIN-93 diets as improvements in the AIN-76A diet. Journal of Nutrition. 127(5 Supplement):838S-841S.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9164249

Romaguera, D., Norat, T., Mouw, T., May, A.M. et al. (2009). Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet is associated with lower abdominal adiposity in European men and women. J Nutr. 139:1728-1737
http://jn.nutrition.org/content/139/9/1728.full

Rovito Jr., P. M., Morse, P. D., Spinek, K., Newman, N., Jones, R. F., Wang, C. Y., Hass, G. P. (2005). Heterocyclic amines and genotype of N-acetyltransferases as risk factors for prostate cancer. Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases. 8:69-74.
http://www.nature.com/pcan/journal/v8/n1/full/4500780a.html

Ruder, E. H., Berndt, S. I., Gilsing, A. M. J., Graubard, B. I., Burdett, L., Hayes, R. B., Weissfeld, J. L., Ferrucci, L. M., Sinha, R., and Cross, A. J. (2014). Dietary iron, iron homeostatic gene polymorphisms and the risk of advanced colorectal adenoma and cancer. Carcinogenesis, 35(6), 1276-1283.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4043236/

Santos, C., Gomes, A., Roseiro, L. C. (2011). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons incidence in Portuguese traditional smoked meat products. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 49:2343-2347.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21722696

Schut, H. A. J. and Ruisheng, Y. (2000). Tea as a potential chemopreventive agent in PhIP carcinogenesis: effects of green tea and black tea on PhIP-DNA adduct formation in female F-344 rats. Nutrition and Cancer. 36(1):52-58.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10798216

Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN). (2010). Iron and Health Report, 102-105.
https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/339309/SACN_Iron_and_Health_Report.pdf

Sesink, A. L. A., Termont, D. S. M. L., Kleibeuker, J. H., and Van der Meer, R. (1999). Red meat and colon cancer: the cytotoxic and hyperproliferative effects of dietary heme. Cancer Research, 59, 5704-5709.
http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/59/22/5704.full.pdf

Sesink, A. L. A., Termont, D. S. M. L., Kleibeuker, J. H., and Van der Meer, R. (2001). Red meat and colon cancer: Dietary haem-induced colonic cytotoxicity and epithelial hyperproliferation are inhibited by calcium. Carcinogenesis, 22(10), 1653-1659.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11577005

Sharp, P. A. (2010). Intestinal iron absorption: regulation by dietary and systemic factors. International Journal of Vitamin and Nutrition Research, 80(4-5), 231-242.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21462105

Shaughnessy, D. T., Gangarosa, L. M., Schliebe, B., Umbach, D. M., Xu, Z., MacIntosh, B., Knize, M. G., Matthews, P. P., Swank, A. E., Sandler, R. S., DeMarini, D. M., and Taylor, J. A. (2011). Inhibition of fried meat-induced colorectal DNA damage and altered systemic genotoxicity in humans by crucifera, chlorophyllin, and yogurt. PLoS ONE. 6(4):e18707. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0018707.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21541030

Shayeghi, M., Latunde-Dada, G. O., Oakhill, J. S., Laftah, A. H., Takeuchi, K., Halliday, N., Khan, Y., Warley, A., McCann, F. E., Hider, R. C., Frazer, D. M., Anderson, G. J., Vulpe, C. D., Simpson, R. J., and McKie, A. T. (2005). Identification of an intestinal heme transporter. Cell, 122, 789-801.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16143108

Shils, M., Olson, J., and Shike, M. (1999). “Iron in medicine and nutrition.” Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 9th edition, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.
http://www.amazon.com/Modern-Nutrition-Health-Disease-Books/dp/068330769X

Shin, A., Shrubsole, M. J., Rice, J. M., Cai, Q., Doll, M. A., Long, J., Smalley, W. E., Shyr, Y., Sinha, R., Ness, R. M., Hein, D. W., and Zheng, W. (2008). Meat intake, heterocyclic amine exposure, and metabolizing enzyme polymorphisms in relation to colorectal polyp risk. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers Prevention. 17(2):320-329.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18268115

Sinha, R., Cross, A., Curtin, J., Zimmerman, T., McNutt, S., Risch, A., and Holden, J. (2005). Development of a food frequency questionnaire module and databases for compounds in cooked and processed meats. Molecular Nutrition and Food Research. 49:648-655.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/mnfr.200500018/abstract

Sinha, R., Kulldorff, M., Gunter, M. J., Strickland, P., Rothman, N. (2005). Dietary benzo[a]pyrene intake and risk of colorectal adenoma. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers Prevention. 14:2030-2034.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16103456

Skog, K. and Solyakov, A. (2002). Heterocyclic amines in poultry products: a literature review. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 40(8):1213-1221.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0278691502000625

Sodring, M., Oostindjer, M., Egelandsdal, B., and Paulsen, J. E. (2015). Effects of hemin and nitrite on intestinal tumorigenesis in the A/J Min/+ mouse model. PLoS One, 10(4), 1-15.
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0122880

Steck, S. E., Butler, L. M., Keku, T., Antwi, S., Galanko, J., Sandler, R. S., and Hu, J. J. (2014). Nucleotide excision repair gene polymorphisms, meat intake and colon cancer risk. Mutation Research. 762:24-31.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24607854

Sugimura, T., Wakabayashi, K., Nakagama, H., and Nagao, M. (2004). Heterocyclic amines: mutagens/carcinogens produced during cooking of meat and fish. Cancer Science. 95(4):290-299.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15072585

Suman, S. P., Faustman, C., Lee, S., Tang, J., Sepe, H. A., Vasudevan, P., Annamalai, T., Manojkuman, M., Marek, P., Venkitanarayanan, K. S. (2005). Effect of erythorbate, storage and high-oxygen packaging on premature browning in ground beef. Meat Science, 69, 363-369.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22062829

Suman, S. P., Rentfrow, G., Nair, M. N. and Joseph, P. (2014). Proteomics of muscle- and species-specificity in meat color stability. Journal of Animal Science, 92, 875-882.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24496833

Tiemersma, E. W., Voskuil, D. W., Bunschoten, A., Hogendoorn, E. A., Witteman, B. J. M., Nagengast, F. M., Glatt, H. R., Kok, F. J., and Kampman, E. (2004). Risk of colorectal adenomas in relation to meat consumption, meat preparation, and genetic susceptibility in a Dutch population. Cancer Causes and Control. 15:225-236.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15090717

Trudo, S.P. and Gallaher, D.D. (2015). Meat and Colorectal Cancer: Associations and Issues. Curr Nutr Rep 4, 33–39.
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs13668-014-0117-z#page-1

Turesky, R. J. (2007). Formation and biochemistry of carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amines in cooked meats. Toxicology Letters. 168:219-227.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17174486

Van Hemelrijck, M., Rohrmann, S., Steinbrecher, A., Delbrueck, M., Kaaks, R., Teucher, B., and Linseisen, J. (2012). Heterocyclic aromatic amines [HCA] intake and prostate cancer risk: effect modification by genetic variants. Nutrition and Cancer. 64(5):704–713.
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01635581.2012.678548

Vangnai, K., Houser, T. A., Hunt, M. C., and Smith, J. S. (2014). Effect of enhancement on the formation of heterocyclic amines in cooked pork loins: preliminary studies. Meat Science. 98:88-93.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24906186

Viegas, O., Moreira, P. S., and Ferreira, I. M. P. L. V. O. (2015). Influence of beer marinades on the reduction of carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amines in charcoal-grilled pork meat. Food Additives and Contaminants: Part A. 32(3):315–323.
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/19440049.2015.1010607#.VhQKWvlViko

Viegas, O., Novo, P., Pinto, E., Pinho, O., Ferreira, I. M. P. L. V. O. (2012). Effect of charcoal types and grilling conditions on formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in grilled muscle foods. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 50(6):2128-2134.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22459130

Viegas, O., Yebra-Pimentel, I., Martínez-Carballo, E., Simal-Gandara, J., Ferreira, I. M. P. L. V. O. (2014). Effect of beer marinades on formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in charcoal-grilled pork. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 62:2638?2643.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24605876

Voutsinas, J., Wilkens, L. R., Franke, A., Vogt, T. M., Yokochi, L. A., Decker, R., and Le Marchand, L. (2013). Heterocyclic amine intake, smoking, cytochrome P450 1A2 and N-acetylation phenotypes, and risk of colorectal adenoma in a multiethnic population. Gastroenterology. 62(3):416-422.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22628494

Ward, M. H., Cross, A. J., Divan, H., Kulldorff, M., Nowell-Kadlubar, S., Kadlubar, F. F., and Sinha, R. (2007). Processed meat intake, CYP2A6 activity and risk of colorectal adenoma. Carcinogenesis. 28(6):1210-1216.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17277235

What We Eat in America, NHANES 2009-2010, individuals 2 years and over (excluding breast-fed children), day 1 dietary intake data, weighted. Food Patterns Equivalents Database (FPED) 2009-2010.
http://www.ars.usda.gov/SP2UserFiles/Place/80400530/pdf/fped/Table_1_FPED_GEN_0910.pdf

What We Eat in America, NHANES 2011-2012, individuals 2 years and over (excluding breast-fed children), day 1 dietary intake data, weighted. Food Patterns Equivalents Database (FPED) 2011-2012.
http://www.ars.usda.gov/SP2UserFiles/Place/80400530/pdf/fped/Table_3_FPED_INC_1112.pdf

Wlodarska, M., Kostic, A. D. and Xavier, R. (2015). An Intergrative View of Microbiome-Host Interactions in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. Cell Host and Microbe, 17, 577-591.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1931312815001663

Xue, X., Taylor, M., Anderson, E., Hao, C., Qu, A., Greenson, J. K., Zimmermann, E. M., Gonzalez, F. J., and Shah, Y. M. (2012). Hypoxia-inducible factor-2a activation promotes colorectal cancer progression by dysregulating iron homeostasis. Cancer Research, 72(9), 2285-2293.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22419665

Xue, W., and Warshawsky, D. (2005). Metabolic activation of polycyclic and heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and DNA damage: a review. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 206, 73-93.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15963346

Yamada, Y., and Mori, H. (2007). Multistep carcinogenesis of the colon in Apc(Min/+) mouse. Cancer Sci 98, 6-10.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17052257

Yang, S. C., Jenq, S. N., Kang, Z. C., Lee, H. (2000). Identification of benzo[a]pyrene 7,8-diol 9,10-epoxide N2-deoxyguanosine in human lung adenocarcinoma cells exposed to cooking oil fumes from frying fish under domestic conditions. Chemical Research and Toxicology. 13:1046-1050.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11080053

Yao, Z., Li, J., Wu, B., Hao, X., Yin, Y., Jiang, X. (2015). Characteristics of PAHs from deep-frying and frying cooking fumes. Environmental Science and Pollution Research International. doi: 10.1007/s11356-015-4837-4. Epub.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26066859

Yebra-Pimentel I., Fernández-González R., Martínez-Carballo E., Simal-Gándara J. (2015). A Critical Review about the Health Risk Assessment of PAHs and Their Metabolites in Foods. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 55, 1383-1405.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24915328

Zanini, S., Marzotto, M., Giovinazzo, F., Bassi, C., and Bellavite, P. (2015). Effects of dietary components on cancer of the digestive system. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 55, 1870-1885.
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10408398.2012.732126

Zhang, Y., Yu, C., Mei, J., and Wang, S. (2013). Formation and mitigation of heterocyclic aromatic amines in fried pork. Food Additives and Contaminants: Part A. 30(9):1501–1507.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23862679

Zhu, L., Wang, J. (2003). Sources and patterns of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pollution in kitchen air, China. Chemosphere. 50:611-618.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12685737